Hardness/Scale Control

Water Chemistry

  • There are millions of colloids, suspended solids, and dissolved solids in each mL of water.
  • These particles include metals, dirt, bacteria, and other materials.
  • Saturation is the maximum capacity of water to keep dissolved minerals in solution.
  • Supersaturation occurs when dissolved minerals exceed the saturation level and cannot remain dissolved. Then the minerals eventually precipitate and become solids, either as scale on equipment surfaces or as powder.



Particles and Flow-Tech’s Effect

  • Most colloids and suspended solids are negatively charged.
  • Common negatively charged particles, when in close proximity, repel each other and solids, keeping them suspended in the solution.
  • Chemicals attempt to reduce surface charge and keep particles in solution.
  • Flow-Tech’s signal reduces the negative charge/zeta potential on the particle.
  • Reduction of zeta potential leads to particle attraction because of a lower path of resistance, making them a preferred site compared to a pipe, where scale would form.


Calcium Scale

Scale - Chiller Tubes -2Cause

  • Dissolved calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is the primary source.
  • Inverse solubility causes precipitation on hot surfaces first.
  • Temperature, pH, and pressure effect the amount of supersaturation.

Thermal Insulation

  • Reduces heat transfer efficiency—1/16″ of scale formation leads to 12% reduction of efficiency
  • With a reduction of efficiency, more energy is needed to heat or cool water, leading to higher cost.


  • Obstructs flow in pipes, chiller tubes, and heat exchangers, leading to higher stress on equipment, causing a decrease in expected life
  • Decreases evaporation efficiency


Flow-Tech’s signal is able to alter the charge on particles, allowing the formation of seed crystals. These seed crystals allow other minerals to stick to them before they stick to pipes and other equipment. This formed powder allows for typically higher cycles of concentration and creates mineral clusters large enough to filter out.











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Flow-Tech SystemsHardness/Scale Control